[64], "Without exception, the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy, and among the leading philosophers in the United States, all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers. Frege further developed his philosophy of logic and mathematics in The Foundations of Arithmetic (1884) and The Basic Laws of Arithmetic (German: Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, 1893–1903), where he provided an alternative to psychologistic accounts of the concept of number. Its revolutionary ideas include Russell's Paradox, a problem which inspired Ludwig Wittgenstein to pursue philosophy. J.O. "[5][6], Analytic philosophy is often understood in contrast to other philosophical traditions, most notably continental philosophies such as existentialism, phenomenology, and Hegelianism. No doubt others would have made somewhat different lists, but anybody familiar with the history of analytic philosophy will recognize that the list I give suffers, if at all, only by omission. Post titles cannot consist only in questions, even if the title of the linked material is a question. An extremely important work that is omitted is Saul Kripke's Naming and Necessity, almost certainly the most important work in analytic philosophy post-WW2. Phillips, among others. [–]Sloph 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (3 children). [–]tablefor1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). It wont take you long to recognize the difference in style of writing, clarity, and even subject matter between these authors and their continental counterparts (Hegel or Heidegger). [–]fitzgeraldthisside 4 points5 points6 points 7 years ago (1 child). Abstracts should make clear what the linked material is about and what its thesis is. [10] Inspired by developments in modern formal logic, the early Russell claimed that the problems of philosophy can be solved by showing the simple constituents of complex notions. [53] The weight given to scientific evidence is largely due to widespread commitments among philosophers to scientific realism and naturalism. Comments which blatantly do not contribute to the discussion may be removed, particularly if they consist of personal attacks. I downvoted this because it promotes the kind of circlejerking I wouldn't like to see here. [35] The demise of logical positivism renewed interest in philosophy of religion, prompting philosophers like William Alston, John Mackie, Alvin Plantinga, Robert Merrihew Adams, Richard Swinburne, and Antony Flew not only to introduce new problems, but to re-study classical topics such as the nature of miracles, theistic arguments, the problem of evil, (see existence of God) the rationality of belief in God, concepts of the nature of God, and many more.[36]. Analytic philosophers take themselves so seriously. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:Analytic philosophers.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. People like me, who have been trying to do philosophy for more than forty years, do in due course learn, if they’re lucky, how to do what they’ve been trying to do: that is, they do learn how to do philosophy. /r/philosophy is intended for philosophical material and discussion. Phillips in Philosophy's Cool Place, which rests on an interpretation of a passage from Wittgenstein's "Culture and Value. Wittgenstein developed a comprehensive system of logical atomism in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (German: Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, 1921). Artificial intelligence is making machines more creative — but machines don’t make art. Owing largely to Gettier's 1963 paper "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? [–]illogician 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (1 child). It has informed pretty much all work in epistemology since it was published simply by pointing out in two pages that we can have justified true beliefs that don't count as knowledge according to the traditional view of what knowledge is. See also our discussion of philosophy and mental health issues here. [34]:3, As with the study of ethics, early analytic philosophy tended to avoid the study of philosophy of religion, largely dismissing (as per the logical positivists) the subject as part of metaphysics and therefore meaningless. During this phase, Russell and Wittgenstein sought to understand language (and hence philosophical problems) by using logic to formalize how philosophical statements are made. Interest in its historical development is increasing, but there has hitherto been no sustained attempt to elucidate what it currently amounts to, and how it differs from so-called 'continental' philosophy. (I understand that the divide is not always clear-cut - and whether the division is a healthy one is a discussion worth having, but a separate one - though I think most of us would be able to confidentially call most philosophers one or the other. Plantinga, Mackie and Flew debated the logical validity of the free will defense as a way to solve the problem of evil. As for the dream thing, I suspect this ties into the whole Orwellian/Stalineque thing that was a key part of Consciousness Explained. [9] An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism—the opinion that there are aspects of the world that can be known only by knowing the whole world. In particular, communitarians challenge the liberal assumption that the individual can be considered as fully autonomous from the community in which he lives and is brought up. There are famous philosophers of the past whose ideas were once significant, and still provide an important historical backdrop to current ideas, but whom no one discusses in a serious way anymore. Apparently, ‘speculative’, as used by analytic philosophers, is not a descriptive term. Consequentialist libertarianism also derives from the analytic tradition. Some of the most important analytic philosophers, in my opinion, are as follows: Ludwig Wittgenstein - Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus or The Philosophical Investigations(good luck understanding these w/o secondary literature, but they're must reads) Everett, Anthony and Thomas Hofweber (eds.) An alternative higher-order theory, the higher-order global states (HOGS) model, is offered by Robert van Gulick.[25]. In any case, it can introduce people to new philosophers and ideas. Read the posted content, understand and identify the philosophical arguments given, and respond to these substantively. Sure, the old Greek guys from 2,400 years ago get all the glory. Contemporary analytic philosophers, feminist and nonfeminist, can be characterized roughly as follows: they consider (some of) Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, and the Logical Positivists to be their intellectual ancestors; they tend to prize explicit argumentation and the literal, precise, and clear use of language; they often value the roles of philosophy of language, … [50] Important also for the revival of metaphysics was the further development of modal logic, including the work of Saul Kripke, who argued in Naming and Necessity and elsewhere for the existence of essences and the possibility of necessary, a posteriori truths. I believe he's on record as saying that sometimes he says things not because he believes them to be true or even likely, but because he considers them interesting ideas. I wouldn't consider Contingency to be an Analytic work. The debate moves on. [30][31][32] In education, applied ethics addressed themes such as punishment in schools, equality of educational opportunity, and education for democracy. I will second Rorty, but I have to admit that that's probably because CIS is what made me major in Philosophy. 0 Tag’s. [14] Philosophers such as Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, along with other members of the Vienna Circle, claimed that the truths of logic and mathematics were tautologies, and those of science were verifiable empirical claims. I think I find him so important because I'm interested in philosophy of science, and at least in that field he would likely be in the top five (revolutionizing anti-realism and all). [–]NeoPlatonist 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (3 children), Wittgenstein - Philosophical Investigations, Tractatus, [–]adodger 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (2 children). Other important figures in its history include the logical positivists (particularly Rudolf Carnap), W. V. O. Quine, Saul Kripke, and Karl Popper. Bas van Fraassen - Scientific Image (I may show my bias by including van Fraassen) ",[57] epistemology resurged as a topic of analytic philosophy during the last 50 years. Austin. Another example, perhaps better, is logical positivism. Many of the historical greats were involved in either supporting or denying verificationism. It's not because he's some strange holdover from the bad old days, but rather that he's taken these two stances and evolved them forward. This is extremely historically significant in analytic philosophy. Dennett wasn't joking about being a behaviorist and verificationist. Rawls' Theory of Justice has similarly informed political philosophy. The best known theories are Daniel Dennett's heterophenomenology, Fred Dretske and Michael Tye's representationalism, and the higher-order theories of either David M. Rosenthal—who advocates a higher-order thought (HOT) model—or David Armstrong and William Lycan—who advocate a higher-order perception (HOP) model. Central figures in this historical development of analytic philosophy are Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Ayer and the logical positivists. For English philosophy this represented a break in an almost continuous tradition of empiricism. I would add that Searle’s work in philosophy of mind and language has been very influential, and Plantinga’s work in epistemology and philosophy of religion is also significant. Google Drive links and link shorteners are not allowed. Today, contemporary normative ethics is dominated by three schools: consequentialism, virtue ethics, and deontology. [26] It was only with the emergence of ordinary language philosophers that ethics started to become an acceptable area of inquiry for analytic philosophers. Exceptions are made only for posts about philosophers with substantive content, e.g. Definitions of List of analytic philosophers, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of List of analytic philosophers, analogical dictionary of List of analytic philosophers (English) During the 1960s, criticism from within and without caused the analytic movement to abandon its linguistic form. a good companion piece for understanding LW's thoughts as well of the thoughts of interpreters. A large portion of current epistemological research is intended to resolve the problems that Gettier's examples presented to the traditional justified true belief model of knowledge, including developing theories of justification in order to deal with Gettier's examples, or giving alternatives to the justified true belief model. In addition to his academic work, Russell played an active role in many social and political campaigns. Order now. Van Inwagen, Peter, and Dean Zimmerman (eds.) In his important book The Principles of Mathematics, he sought to reduce mathematics to logic. [–][deleted] 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (2 children). Lennox, James G., "Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism" in Sakar and Plutynski (eds.). use the following search parameters to narrow your results: To learn more about what is and is not considered philosophy for the purposes of this subreddit, see our FAQ. All posts must be in English. As a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-centuryphilosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Phillips became two of the most prominent philosophers on Wittgenstein's philosophy of religion.[42]. A philosophical idea that can help us understand why time is moving slowly during the pandemic. The other, known as "Oxford philosophy", involved J. L. I think it's important that both sides reach out to the other and try to find common ground - or, at the very least, understand where they are coming from. REDDIT and the ALIEN Logo are registered trademarks of reddit inc. π Rendered by PID 24738 on r2-app-0b90d2c0514cf53a7 at 2020-12-03 02:09:21.411020+00:00 running a42a821 country code: US. He wrote a number of books aimed at the general public, including The History of Western Philosophy which became enormously popular, and in 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. The history of analytic philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "20th-/21st-century analytic philosophy") is usually thought to begin with the rejection of British idealism, a neo-Hegelian movement. During this time, utilitarianism was the only non-skeptical type of ethics to remain popular. For example, a traditional philosophical problem is “Does God exist?” Various philosophical schools have proposed answers to this question, but analytic philosophy approache… He thereby argued that the universe is the totality of actual states of affairs and that these states of affairs can be expressed by the language of first-order predicate logic. "Virtue Ethics". But because value judgments are of significant importance in human life, it became incumbent on logical positivism to develop an explanation of the nature and meaning of value judgments. This means that the more powerful theses of the analytic philosophers who had gone before, that the analysis of language enables us to avoid or (see linked article states for the problem statement; thesis; alternatives; and objections, and analysis), Frances Power Cobbe and Nineteenth-Century Moral Philosophy. Due to the commitments to empiricism and symbolic logic in the early analytic period, early analytic philosophers often thought that inquiry in the ethical domain could not be made rigorous enough to merit any attention. [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago* (2 children), [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (1 child). [19], Scott Soames agrees that clarity is important: analytic philosophy, he says, has "an implicit commitment—albeit faltering and imperfect—to the ideals of clarity, rigor and argumentation" and it "aims at truth and knowledge, as opposed to moral or spiritual improvement [...] the goal in analytic philosophy is to discover what is true, not to provide a useful recipe for living one's life". Hare, which was based on J.L. In that book, Cohen used logical and linguistic analysis to clarify and defend Marx's materialist conception of history. Posts about well-trod issues (e.g. Born in 1872 into an aristocratic family, Bertrand Russell is widely regarded as one of the founders of Analytic philosophy, which is today the dominant philosophical tradition in the English-speaking world. The second is in logical positivism and its attitude that unverifiable statements are meaningless. Word-for-word, I don't think there's anything as influential as the Gettier Paper. [–][deleted] -1 points0 points1 point 7 years ago (0 children). Interest in its historical development is increasing, but there has hitherto been no sustained attempt to elucidate what it currently amounts to, and how it differs from so-called 'continental' philosophy. Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy using analysis which is popular in the Western World and particularly the Anglosphere, which began around the turn of the 20th century in the contemporary era and continues today. Therefore if there is a purpose or meaning to life, it lies in maximizing, perfecting, and improving states of consciousness. For example, the English word "is" has three distinct meanings which predicate logic can express as follows: Russell sought to resolve various philosophical problems by applying such logical distinctions, most famously in his analysis of definite descriptions in "On Denoting" (1905).[13]. If you have unrelated thoughts or don't wish to read the content, please post your own thread or simply refrain from commenting. The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. At a minimum, this includes: stating the problem being addressed; stating the thesis; stating how the thesis contributes to the problem; outlining some alternative answers to the same problem; saying something about why the stated thesis is preferable to the alternatives; anticipating some objections to the stated thesis and giving responses to them. Martinich draws an analogy between analytic philosophy's interest in conceptual analysis and analytic chemistry, which aims to determine chemical compositions. [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). I would've liked the "must-read" version of the question better, had it not suffered from the same content-killing generality, and were it not something you could easily answer with a quick look at Wikipedia. Mirror, sure. As already pointed out, analytics typically don't dwell on history, so I'll mention some more recent works (relative to the foundational works of Russell, Carnap, Frege, et al.) In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments.[1]. Also, the generality of the question promotes depthlessness and pop-philosophy worshiping. The first half of the 20th century was marked by skepticism toward and neglect of normative ethics. Soames also states that analytic philosophy is characterized by "a more piecemeal approach. [–]Taure 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (6 children). Instead, they argue for a conception of the individual that emphasizes the role that the community plays in forming his or her values, thought processes and opinions. Russell, during his early career, along with his collaborator Alfred North Whitehead, was much influenced by Gottlob Frege (1848–1925), who developed predicate logic, which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible using the ancient Aristotelian logic. [–]walkertalking[S] 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (1 child). Dennett's version is more balanced; it explains rather than denying. Then maybe Parfit's Reasons and Persons to round things out with ethics/identity. Behaviorism later became much less popular, in favor of type physicalism or functionalism, theories that identified mental states with brain states. Start by looking at Quine's school. Links to Google Translated versions of posts are not allowed. Originating in the pioneering work of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein in the four decades around the turn of the twentieth century, analytic philosophy established itself in various forms in the 1930s. [1][2] They have done so largely by expanding the notion of "analytic philosophy" from the specific programs that dominated anglophone philosophy before 1960 to a much more general notion of an "analytic" style. ", "Analytic philosophy opposed right from its beginning English neo-Hegelianism of Bradley's sort and similar ones. Born in 1872 into an aristocratic family, Bertrand Russell is widely regarded as one of the founders of Analytic philosophy, which is today the dominant philosophical tradition in the English-speaking world. I would like to learn more about the "big" post-Enlightenment thinkers and works on the Analytic side. This caused the logical positivists to reject many traditional problems of philosophy, especially those of metaphysics or ontology, as meaningless. He wrote a two page paper in 1963, pointing out what in retrospect seems like a fairly obvious flaw with JTB, and has been living off it ever since. Willard Van Orman Quine (Yes, his name is awesome) He came out at #5 in this survey of the most important philosophers of the last 200 years (at least by Condorcet scoring). [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). I don't understand your problem with the question- obviously some of the same names will pop up, but I've noticed a suprising amount of variation in the comments. You could narrow down the issue and ask, say, "which color is the most important road sign color", and then people might be able to seriously consider the issue, but the question asked in full generality is simply going to lead to a bunch of people making arbitrary assumptions and going off of gut feel. Analytic philosophy is characterized by an emphasis on language, known as the linguistic turn, and for its clarity and rigor in arguments, making use of formal logic and mathematics, and, to a lesser degree, the natural sciences. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below. Encouraging other users to commit suicide, even in the abstract, is strictly forbidden. [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (2 children). He supported women's suffrage, was imprisoned for his pacifism during World War I and was a founder of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. While schools such as logical positivism emphasize logical terms, supposed to be universal and separate from contingent factors (such as culture, language, historical conditions), ordinary-language philosophy emphasizes the use of language by ordinary people. for philosophy of mind. [22], John Searle suggests that the obsession with the philosophy of language during the 20th century has been superseded by an emphasis on the philosophy of mind,[23] in which functionalism is currently the dominant theory. Users with a history of such comments may be banned. These two constituted the entire universe of meaningful judgments; anything else was nonsense. The following (not exhaustive) list of items require moderator pre-approval: meta-posts, posts to products, services or surveys, links to other areas of reddit, AMAs. All links to either audio or video content require abstracts of the posted material, posted as a comment in the thread. This post-linguistic analytic philosophy cann… It then takes decades for someone to fish out the good parts from the corpse of the original version and rehabilitate its public image. [38] Analytic epistemology and metaphysics has formed the basis for some philosophically-sophisticated theistic arguments, like those of the reformed epistemologists like Plantinga. [54] The philosophy of biology has also undergone considerable growth, particularly due to the considerable debate in recent years over the nature of evolution, particularly natural selection. In his important book The Principles of Mathematics, he … [55] Daniel Dennett and his 1995 book Darwin's Dangerous Idea, which defends Neo-Darwinism, stand at the foreground of this debate.[56]. By the time he's writing "On Behaviorism" the differences between his behaviorism and the cognitive paradigm that replaced it are less significant than philosophers familiar only with his early work realize. [–]Sloph 3 points4 points5 points 7 years ago (9 children). His thought experiments are a lot of fun (robot cats!). ), [–]wza 17 points18 points19 points 7 years ago (3 children). [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago* (4 children). [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (3 children). These are just the minimum requirements. Although many discussions are continuations of old ones from previous decades and centuries, the debate remains active.
2020 analytic philosophers list